Chi-square and Beyond for 2x2 Tables

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Start - End
17 Mar - 18 Mar
Study Options
£ 125
Contact Name
Centre for Applied Statistics Courses
Contact Email

17 March 2021–18 March 2021, 9:30 am–1:00 pm

This course aims to demystify the range of statistics that can be used to summarise the associations between two binary variables. We move on from the standard chi-square test to investigate other options that may yield more useful information.

NOTE: Due to the coronavirus outbreak, all courses will now be delivered online through a live video feed. You can expect the same level of group and individual support as you would have received in our face-to-face courses.


When data is collected from 2 binary variables on the same individuals or items, the data may be displayed as a 2 by 2 table. It is often of interest to determine whether there is some form of association between the two variables in the table, for example, comparing the % who test positive between two treatment groups, or between 2 subgroups such as males and females. The chi-square test is most commonly used by researchers to compare the percentage of individuals in two groups who share a trait.

However, there are many other statistics that may be applied to a 2x2 table to provide more useful information and this course aims to help guide the researcher through alternative analyses to decide on the most appropriate investigation of their data.

The following tests and concepts are covered in the course:

  • Fishers exact testing
  • Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR)
  • Proportions tests
  • Number needed to treat (NNT)
  • Relative risk (RR)
  • Attributable risk (AR)
  • Odds ratio (OR)
  • Kappa
  • Sensitivity and specificity
  • Positive and negative predictive values
  • Likelihood ratios

For each statistic we consider the interpretation and appropriate usages.

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